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Add Roster. Samantha Roscoe. Riley Lupfer. Ruzica Dzankic. DBBL Standings. It is this settlement that was eventually given city rights.

The original village remained recognisable as a separate entity until about , at which time it was incorporated within the town's fortification.

It is likely the present city was founded between and , although the exact circumstances are not known. The configuration of the streets in the oldest part of the town is in the shape of a pentagon , and it has been proposed that the inception of the town followed a planned design.

At this time, the town was known by the name Gudingin or also Gotingen. Its inhabitants obeyed welfish ownership and ruling rights, and the first Göttingen burghers are mentioned, indicating that Göttingen was already organised as a true city.

The original Welf residency in the town consisted of a farm building and the stables of the Welf dukes, which occupied the oldest part of the city's fortifications built prior to In its early days, Göttingen became involved in the conflicts of the Welfs with their enemies.

The initial conflicts in the first decades of the 13th century benefited the burghers of Göttingen, who were able to use the political and military situation to be courted by various parties, and hence forcing the Welf town lords to make certain compromises with the town.

These included privileges concerning self-governance of the town, protection of traders, and trading facilitation. The document also promises that the town is not to fall into the hands of other powers.

It is to be assumed that at this time Göttingen possessed a city council of burghers. The names of council members are first given in a document from The area secured by the initial fortification included the old market place, the old town hall, the two main churches, St.

Johannes St John's and St. Jacobi St. James's , the smaller church St. Nikolai St. Outside of the fortification in front of the Geismar city gate lay the old village with the Church of St.

Alban, which was subsequently known as Geismarer altes Dorf old Geismar village. This village was only to a limited extent under welfish control and thus could not be included in the town's privileges and fortification.

The town was initially protected by a rampart, as of the late 13th century then also by walls on top of the mound-like ramparts.

This made it smaller than contemporary Hanover , but larger than the neighbouring Welfish towns of Northeim , Duderstadt and Hann. The Gote stream that flowed south of the walls of the town was connected to the River Leine via a channel at about this time and the waterway has since been known as the Leine Canal.

Duke Albrecht I governed for his brother, a minor, at first. Subsequently, the brothers agreed to divide the territory between themselves in , effective Albert II attempted to gain further control over the economically and politically rapidly growing town by founding a new town German : Neustadt west of the original town, across the Leine Canal and outside of the Groner City Gate.

This competing settlement consisted of a single street, no more than 80 yards long, with houses on either side of the street. The Duke, however, could not prevent Göttingen's westward expansion nor the success of the Göttingen City Council in effectively checking any hope of economic development in the Neustadt.

The St. Marien Church St. Mary's was built to the south of the Neustadt which, together with all adjoining farm buildings, was given to the Teutonic Knights in After the failure of the new town , the city council bought up the uncomfortable competition to the west in for three hundred Marks , and obtained the promise from the Duke that he would not erect any fortress within a mile of the town.

Two monasteries were also founded on the edge of the town at the end of the 13th century. To the east, in the area of today's Wilhelmsplatz , a Franciscan monastery was built as early as , according to the city chronicler Franciscus Lubecus.

In , Albert the Fat permitted the founding of a Dominican monastery along the Leine Canal opposite the Neustadt , for which the Paulinerkirche Pauline church , completed in , was constructed.

Jews settled in Göttingen in the late 13th century. On 1 March , the Duke gave the City Council permission to allow the first Jew, Moses, to settle inside the town limits.

The subsequent Jewish population lived predominantly close to St. These dukes joined Göttingen and surrounding towns in battles against aristocratic knights in the surroundings of Göttingen, in the course of which the citizens of Göttingen succeeded in destroying the fortress of Grone between and , as well as the fortress of Rosdorf.

Since Otto the Mild died without leaving any children, his brothers Magnus and Ernest divided the land between themselves. Ernest I received Göttingen, the poorest of all the Welf principalities, which was to remain separate from Brunswick for a long time to come.

At this time, the territory consisted of the regions formerly owned by Northeim, the towns of Göttingen, Uslar, Dransfeld, Münden, Gieselwerder and half of Moringen.

Not much is known about the rule of Duke Ernest I, but it is generally assumed that he continued to fight against aristocratic knights. The epithet the Evil came from Otto I's incessant feuds.

Breaking with the policies of his predecessors, he frequently aligned himself with the aristocratic knights of the neighbourhood in battles against the cities, whose growing power disturbed him.

Under Otto the Evil, Göttingen gained a large degree of independence. After losing control of the provincial court at the Leineberg to Göttingen in , Otto finally tried to impose his influence on Göttingen in , but with little success.

In April , Göttingen's citizens stormed and destroyed the fortress within the city's walls. In retaliation, Otto destroyed villages and farms in the town's surroundings.

However, Göttingen's citizens gained a victory over the Duke's army in a battle between the villages of Rosdorf and Grone, under their leader Moritz of Uslar, forcing Otto to acknowledge the independence of the town and its surrounding properties.

After Duke Otto I of Göttingen relinquished his jurisdiction over Jews to the town of Göttingen in the years —70, conditions for Jews greatly deteriorated, and several bloody persecutions and evictions from the town followed.

Between and , no Jews lived in Göttingen at all. The trend towards ever diminishing Welf influence over the town continued until the end of the 15th century, although the town officially remains a Welf property.

Nevertheless, it is counted in some contemporaneous documents among the Imperial Free Cities. The 14th and 15th centuries thus represent a time of political and economic power expansion, which is also reflected in the contemporary architecture.

The expansion of the St. Johannis Church to a Gothic hall church began in the first half of the 14th century. After completion of the work on St.

John's Church, the rebuilding of St James's was begun in the second half of the 14th century. The original, smaller church that preceded this building was probably initiated by Henry the Lion or his successor, and functioned as a fortress chapel to the city fortress that lay immediately behind it.

The representative old town hall was built between and Around , the town's fortifications were rebuilt to encompass now also the new town and the old village.

In the course of this construction work, the four city gates were moved farther out, and the town's area grew to roughly 75 hectares. The city council forged alliances with surrounding towns, and Göttingen joined the Hanseatic League in see below.

Göttingen also gained Grona currently Grone and several other surrounding villages in the Leine Valley.

The reason for the progressive power increase in the late Middle Ages was the growing economic importance of the town.

This depended largely on its good connection to the north—south trade route, particularly the north—south trade route that followed the Leine Valley, which greatly aided the local textile industry in particular.

Next to the guild of linen weavers, the guild of wool weavers gained in importance. The wool for the weaving originated in the immediate surroundings of the town, where up to sheep and lambs were kept.

Woollen cloth was successfully exported all the way to the Netherlands and Lübeck. From , textile production was augmented by the addition of new weavers who brought novel weaving techniques to Göttingen and consolidated the position of the town as a textile exporter for three generations.

Only at the end of the 16th century did the decline of the local textile industry occur when Göttingen could not compete anymore with cheap English textiles.

Göttingen's traders also profited from the important trade route between Lübeck and Frankfurt am Main. Göttingen's market became important beyond the region.

Traders from other regions would come in great numbers four times a year. Göttingen also joined the Hanseatic League , to the first meeting of which it was invited in Göttingen's relationship with the Hanseatic League remained distant, however.

As an inland town, Göttingen enjoyed the economic connections of the League, but it did not want to get involved in the politics of the alliance.

Göttingen only became a paying member in , and left as early as After several dynastic splits and shifts in power that followed the death of Otto the One-Eyed, Duke Eric I "the Elder", Prince of Calenberg , annexed the principality of Göttingen, which became an integral part of the Principality of Calenberg.

The subsequent tensions economically weakened Göttingen, leading to the town finally paying its homage to Eric I in Afterward the relationship between Eric and the town improved, because of Eric's financial dependence on Göttingen.

In the city came into the possession of the dukes of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, also of the Welf dynasty, and in it passed to the house of Lüneburg, which ruled it thenceforth.

In it was named as part of the indivisible territory Electoral State of Hanover officially the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

During the Napoleonic period, the city was briefly in the hands of Prussia in , turned over in to the newly created Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia , and returned to the State of Hanover in after Napoleon's defeat.

In the prince-electors of Hanover were elevated to kings of Hanover and the Kingdom of Hanover was established. During the Austro-Prussian War , the Kingdom of Hanover had attempted to maintain a neutral position.

After Hanover voted in favor of mobilizing confederation troops against Prussia on 14 June , Prussia saw this as a just cause for declaring war.

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